Timeline of Roman Control of Palestine

Historical background information--I.

A simplified timeline of Roman control over Jerusalem/Judea/Palestine.

Some sample sources are:

http://www.roman-emperors.org/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ancient_Israel_and_Judah#Roman_occupation

http://www.livius.org/judaea.html 

{Any commentary interpreting historical facts is the redactor’s.}

 

ROMAN EMPERORS

 
 

GOVERNERS OF   “PALESTINE”

 
 

NOTABLE EVENTS

 
 

Julius Caesar Assassinated

(44 BCE)

 
 

Antipater the Idumaean serves as first Roman procurator until   killed in 44 BCE.

 
 


Roman civil strife between Octavian, Mark Antony & Lepidus   versus Cassius, Brutus & others & each other until final victory of   Octavian over Antony & Cleopatra in 30 BCE.

 
 

Idumaean, non-Jew, “King” Herod, styled “The Great”, Antipater’s   son, is appointed by the Roman Senate to rule as “friend & ally of Rome”   from ca 40 BCE to 4 BCE.  At his death in 4 BCE, the sons of Herod the Great, Herod   Antipas, Philip, & Herod Archelaus divide up his kingdom with Roman approval.

 
 

Herod’s monumental building projects including the port of   Caesarea Maritima, aqueducts for Jerusalem, and, of course, the greatly   expanded and glorified Temple of Jerusalem with its massive retaining wall to   expand the level surface of the hill top.

 
 

Octavian (Augustus

(27 BCE – 14 CE)

 
 

Brother of Tetrarch Herod Antipas & Tetrarch Philip, the   incompetent Ethnarch Herod Archelaus governs Samaria, Judea and Idumaea   between 4 BCE and 6 CE.

 
 

Birth of Jesus

(4 BCE – 6 CE)

 
 

 
 

In 6 CE, Augustus deposes client “king” Archelaus, and   establishes the province of Iudaea (which becomes a prefecture (sub-province) of Syria.)

 
 

Publius Sulpicius Quirinius is Legate of major province of Syria   from ca 6 CE to 12 CE.

 
 

 
 

Augustus appoints “Prefects” of Iudaea under the general   authority of the Legate of Syria Province:

 
 

Legate Quirinius ordered to organize a census for taxation of   Iudaea. (ca 6 CE)

 
 

 
 

Coponius (6 CE-9 CE)

 
 

The tax revolt of Judas the Galilean and Jewish rioting are   brutally suppressed by Quirinius in 6 CE.

 
 

 
 

M. Ambibulus (9-12)

 
 

 
 

 
 

Annius Rufus (12-15)

 
 

 
 

Tiberius (14-37)

 
 

Valerius Gratus (15-26)

 
 

 
 

 
 

Pontius Pilate (26-36)

 
 

Crucifixion of Jesus

(ca 30)

 
 

 
 

Marcellus (36-37)

 
 

Conversion of Saul? (32?)

 
 

Caligula (37-41)

 
 

Marullus (37-41)

 
 

 
 

Claudius (41-54)

 
 

Roman appointed semi-independent King Herod Agrippa I rules   (41-44)

 
 

 
 

 
 

C. Cuspius Fadus (44-46)

 
 

 
 

 
 

Tib. Julius Alexander (46-48)

 
 

 
 

 
 

Roman appointed semi-independent King Herod Agrippa II rules   (48-100)

 
 

 
 

 
 

P. Ventidius Cumanus (48-52)

 
 

 
 

 
 

M. Antonius Felix (52-58)

 
 

Paul writes his Epistle to Romans?

 
 

Nero (54-68)

 
 

Porcius Festus (58-60)

 
 

Trial of Paul in Caesarea; Paul appeals to the Emperor at Rome   to avoid Jewish authorities.

(ca 58)

 
 

 
 

Lucceius Albinus (60-64)


Paul arrives in Rome. (ca 60-61)

 

Paul travels to Spain?

 
 

 
 

Gessius Florus (64-66)

 
 

A great fire in Rome (July 19, 64) destroys almost 75% of the   city.  Nero holds Christians   responsible and slaughters many.   Peter (64) and Paul (64 or 67?) martyred?

 
 

 
 

THE FIRST JEWISH REVOLT AGAINST THE ROMANS

(66-70)

 
 

Four legions destroy Jerusalem, burn and level the Temple in   70.  Hundreds of thousands of   Jews are killed or deported.

 
 

 
 

Iudaea remains under direct Imperial control and Prefects are   now also termed “Procurators” being in command of a garrison, the Legio X Fretensis.

 
 

The canonical gospels, acts of the apostles, the non-Pauline   epistles, and the Apocalypse are written. None mention Paul’s fate.

(ca 65 –150)

 

(See next page for list.)

 
 

Vespasian (69-79)

 
 

S. Vettulenus Cerialis (70-71)

 
 

 
 

 
 

S. Lucilius Bassus (71-73/74)

 
 

Final fall of Masada (74)

 
 

Titus (79-81)

 
 

L. Flavius Silva (73/74-81)

 
 

 
 

Domitian (81-96)

 
 

Cn. Pompeius Longinus (c.86)

 
 

Epistle of Clement

First mention of Paul’s martyrdom. (96)

 
 

Nerva (96-98)

 
 

S. Hermetidius Campanus (c.93)

 
 

 
 

Trajan (98-117)

 
 

Atticus (c.100)

 
 

 
 

 
 

C. Julius Quadratus Bassus (103-105)

 
 

 
 

 
 

Q. Roscius Coelius Pompeius Falco (105-107)

 
 

Tacitus’ Annals – (105-115)

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

Tiberianus (c.114)

 
 

 
 

 
 

THE SECOND JEWISH REVOLT AGAINST THE ROMANS

(115-117)

 
 

The revolt against Trajan

 
 

 
 

Lusius Quietus (116-117)

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Suetonius’ Lives (115-125)

 
 

Hadrian (117-138)

 
 

Quintus Tineius Rufus (c.132)

 
 

 
 

 
 

C.Q. Certus Publius Marcellus

 
 

 
 

 
 

THE THIRD JEWISH REVOLT AGAINST THE ROMANS

(132-136)

 
 

The Bar Kochba Revolt

 
 

 
 

Province of “Iudaea” name changed to “Syria Palaestina.”

 
 

Jerusalem completed leveled and a new Roman colony “Aelia Capitolina” founded   with a new, traditionally Roman street plan and with all Jews barred from   entry.

 

Words! Mere Words! Was there anything so real as words? - Dorian Gray